A soon-to-be released report of the US Senate criticises the CIA under President George W. Bush of conducting torture of Al Qaeda suspects. However, it doesn’t assess the responsibility of Bush himself nor his vice president, Dick Cheney.
According to the Senate Intelligence Committee’s chairwoman Dianne Feinstein the 6,000 page report is “one of the most significant oversight efforts in the history of the US.”
The report shows that the CIA did not provide accurate information to Congress and also provided misleading information. The report also concludes that the CIA impeded effective White House oversight and decision-making. While the report was being prepared the CIA penetrated the Senate Committee’s computers, arousing the fury of its members.
Bush and Cheney were deeply involved in initiating the torture programme. The Administration claimed that the 183 times of water boarding (the dipping of the head in water so that the prisoner feels he is drowning) of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the 9/11 mastermind, led to the foiling of a terror plot against Los Angeles’s Library Tower. But the Senate report concludes that the information could have been learnt without using torture.
The report’s primary focus is on discerning whether the use of torture gained valuable intelligence. It concluded that it did not.
When President Barack Obama was elected, he swiftly moved to ban water boarding and other torture techniques. However, he refused to authorise a full, in-depth, Justice Department investigation which, if it had taken place, would doubtless have pointed a finger at Bush and Cheney.
In Britain it is alleged that Prime Minister Tony Blair -- Bush’s principal ally -- accepted torture. Britain is not accused of conducting torture on its own soil but of sending those it wanted vigorously interrogated to countries which sanction torture.
In 2005 the British government argued unsuccessfully before the Supreme Court for the right to use torture. This was the first time in more than 200 years that a government had attempted to make it legitimate. Not even when Nazi prisoners were captured was torture used, it being judged that it wouldn’t reveal much more than what sophisticated interrogation techniques could.
Ancient Rome tortured the early Christians. The Church, repelled by what had happened then, for more than a thousand years used its influence to ensure that torture was abolished in Europe. In 1215 the Lateran Council condemned torture as cruel. Tragically, the Church brought it back as a tool of the Inquisition.
From the fifteenth century onwards, England set its face against the use of evidence produced under torture. (The US shares its common law with England.) The judges who presided over these decisions pointed to the inherent weakness of the evidence in confessions procured by torture since a person subject to unbearable pain will say anything to stop it. Only the special Court of the Star Chamber could issue torture orders but in 1640 the Court was abolished and since then no torture warrant has been issued in Britain. Voltaire, who lived in London for three years, wrote of how he admired the English attitude.
In his book “The Rule of Law”, published four years ago, Tom Bingham, the former senior law lord on the Supreme Court, wrote, referring to the Blair government that “it cannot be said that Britain has shown the implacable hostility to torture that should be expected from a state whose courts led the world in rejecting it”.
In Prussia torture was abolished in 1740, in France in 1789 and in Russia in 1847. In the US, Congress passed the eighth amendment to the constitution which forbad “cruel and unusual punishment”.
Torture returned with a vengeance during the twentieth century -- in Stalin’s Soviet Union, Franco’s Spain, Hitler’s Germany and Mussolini’s Italy.
In 1972, Amnesty International opened a campaign for a UN Anti-Torture Convention. In 1981 it won the support of Sweden, the first country to take up the cause. In 1984 the UN finally approved a legally binding treaty against torture. Quite soon after the treaty was ratified by most members of the UN, including the US of President Ronald Reagan and Britain of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, in 1999, for the first time anywhere, a British High Court decided that sovereign immunity must not become sovereign impunity and that under the UN convention Chile’s ex-president Augusto Pinochet, then in London, could be prosecuted for torture.
Yet still, says Amnesty, torture continues to be practiced by most countries, although the EU, the US and Russia are now free of it.
The US has rightly condemned Russia for breaking international law by snatching Crimea and sending some soldiers into Ukraine. But the US has broken international law itself with its use of torture against Al Qaeda. Maybe the new Senate report will lead the US to face up to its inconsistencies.
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