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The Day of Triple Significance Buddha’s Maiden Discourse Dhammacakka Pavattana Suttantam

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Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samma Sumbuddhassa!Siddharta Gautama, the crown prince of Kapilavastu was born on a Vesak full moon day, at the Lumbini Park of the Nepalese border in 623 BC.  
The prince was the only son of Queen Mahamaya and the Sakyan King Suddhodana. At the age of 29, the strongly determined prince left his palace, leaving his loving princes Yasodara and his one-day-old son Rahula. Abandoning all royal luxuries he renounced the World, becoming a penniless ascetic philosopher and wandered into forestry retreat.  
Being a hermit, he strenuously suffered and struggled stupendously, to realize the sublime truth for six long years.   

In the company of distinguished ascetics Alara Kalama, Uddaka Ramaputra and in association with five great ascetics Kondanna, Bhadiya, Vappa, Mahanama and Assaji, Ascetic Siddhartha engaged in spiritual practices.   

He equalled and even surpassed the standards of his teachers but remained unsatisfied with whatever discipline, doctrine and high degree of mental concentration which did not answer his problems of disgust, detachment, cessation of suffering, tranquillity, intuition, Enlightenment and Nibbhana.

Thence, he declined to accept the offer made to him to be the head of all ascetics and realized that the austerities and mortifications were extremity and fruitless.  

Though he had achieved the mastery of mind in their association, his quest to seek the highest truth remained unachieved. His mission was to seek the highest goal Nibbhana! The complete cessation of suffering, the total eradication of all forms of craving thus he decided to continue his great efforts through the moderate Middle Path (Majjhima patipada), in solitude. Abandoning the practices of indulgence in sensual pleasures (Kamasukhallikanuyoga), as well as addiction to self mortification (Attakilamatanuyoga), the two extremes. He followed the ‘Majjhim Patipada, being the only path which leads a recluse to tranquillity, realization, enlightenment and Nibbhana.

Relying on his own efforts on a glorious Vesak full moon day, Sakyamuni Tathagata Gautama, aged 35, attained Supreme Enlightenment under the shade of the Jaya SriMaha Bodhi at Gaya, 2640 years ago. The intensity of this serene joy and pious emotion was so overwhelming that it permeated His entire ‘Golden – Hued Body’ and the Six-coloured glorious rays, emanated from the Body downwards penetrating the Earth, water and Air, and further blazed forth upwards like the Rays of the Glorious Sun into the different realms of existence extending as far as the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception.  

This rare and extraordinary phenomenon is thus described as the “Buddha Rashmi.”    
“The Purity and Sublimity, the Serenity and Tranquillity of His mind generated sparkling and wholesome material qualities which left their imprint on His Personality and the colour of His Blood became Pure, Pellucid and Clear and as a result Rays of Six Colours – Indigo, Gold, Red, White, Tawny and Dazzling issued from the Body of the Blessed One”. In his bliss of Emancipation and transcendental moral victory the Buddha uttered his delightful maiden words the ‘Paean of joy’.   
“Anekajati samsaram sandhavissam anibbisam Gahakarakam gavesanto dukkha jati punappunam Gahakaraka, dittho’ si puna geham na kahasi Sabba te phasuka bhagga gahakutam visamkhitam Visamkharagatam cittam tanhanam khayam ajjhaga” ‘Thro’ many a birth in existence wandered I. Seeking, but not finding, the builder of this house.

Sorrowful is repeated birth. O housebuilder, thou art seen. Thou shalt build no house again.
All thy rafters are broken. Thy ridge-pole is shattered. Mind attains the Unconditioned. Achieved is the End of Craving.” 

Buddha having spent the significant seven weeks (“Satsati”), remained in contemplation on the subtleties and intricacies of his unique discovery. He experienced ecstatic bliss & unalloyed happiness.   The Buddha appears in this World out of boundless compassion, for the good benefit and happiness of gods and men.    Being surface seers the average society fails to diagnose the eternal factors that the life is suffering. Always a Buddha who rarely appears in the World, reveals the eternal truths to the deluded World that life is suffering and sorrowful. As a treatment, to overcome this painful sansarik journey or the cycle of rebirth, the Buddha expounded the Four Noble Truths as well as the Eightfold Noble path for benefit of all recluses (Pabbjitena).  

Meanwhile the hosts of divine beings of many realms were eagerly awaiting to listen to the message of the Buddha. Thereupon, the chief of divine society “Maha Brahma”, paid his highest obeisance to the Enlightened One! and invited the Buddha, to disclose the “Sublime Truths”, to the World and to salvage endless suffering, beings who were intelligent and competent to realize the Dhamma.  
Thereupon, the Buddha set forth to visit to Mighadaya (dear park), Isipatane of the Uruwela Dannawwa, to preach the five Brahmin ascetics, who were his past companions.   

On seeing the Buddha coming back to them, the five ascetics took a decision not to greet him or welcome him warmly. However, as the Buddha approached closer they automatically performed the preliminaries and respectfully offered him a seat. Still unaware that the Buddhahood Gautama, was now Enlightened, they began to address him as an equal. Then the Buddha explained to them that it was improper to address the Tathagata, by name or treat him as an equal.   

The Tatgagata, O Bhikkhus! is not luxurious has not given up striving and has not turned into a life of abundance. An Exalted One is the Tathagata. A fully Enlightened One is He. Listen Bhikkhus! Deathlessness has been attained. I shall instruct and teach you the Dhamma. The adamant ascetics who were initially reluctant to give ear, finally yielded to learn.  
O, Bhikkhus: There are these two extremes (anta), O Bhikkhus, which should be avoided by one who has renounced (pabbajitena).

Kamasukallikanu Yoga,  

(1) Indulgence in sensual pleasures – this is base, vulgar, worldly, ignoble and profitless; and,   

Attakilamatanu Yoga,

(11) Addiction to self-mortification – this is painful, ignoble and profitless.   

Abandoning both these extremes the Tathagata has comprehended the Middle Path (Majjhima Patipada) which promotes sight (Cakkhu) and knowledge (nana), and which tends to peace (vupasamaya), higher wisdom (abhinnaya), Enlightenment (sambodhaya), and Nibbana.   
What, O Bhikkhus, is that Middle Path, the Tathagata has comprehended which promotes sight and knowledge, and which tends to peace, higher wisdom, Enlightenment, and Nibbana?  
The very Noble Eightfold Path – namely, (1) Right Understanding (samma ditthi), (2) Right Thoughts (samma sankappa), (3) Right Speech (samma vaca), (4) Right Action (samma kammanta), (5) Right Livelihood (samma ajiva), (6) Right Effort (samma vayama), (7) Right Mindfulness (samma sati), and (8) Right Concentration (samma Samadhi), This O Bhikkhus is the Middle Path which the Tathagata has comprehended”. (The Buddha continued):  

Now this, O Bhikkhus, of the Four Noble Truths, Suffering is dukkha-ariya-sacca!
Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, to be united with the unpleasant is suffering, to be separated from the pleasant is suffering, not to get what one desires is suffering. In brief the five aggregates of attachment are suffering. Thefive aggregates compose the “Pancupadanakkhandha” – According to Buddhism this so-called being is composed of five groups, viz: Rupa (matter), Vedana (feeling), Sanna (perception), Samkhara (mental states) and Vinnana (consciousness). These are the five psycho-physical component parts that constitute an individual. Matter is composed of forces and qualities. Mind too, is composed of mental states (cetasikas). They are fifty-two in number. Of them vedana, and Sanna are treated as two distinct groups. The remaining fifty are collectively called Sankhara. 

Now, this, O Bhikkhus, secondly is the Noble Truth of the cause of suffering (dukkha-samudaya-ariyasacca):   It is this craving which produces rebirth (ponodhavika), accompanied by passionate clinging, welcoming this and that (life). It is the craving for sensual pleasures (kama tanha), craving for existence (bhava Tanha) and craving for non-existence (vibhava tanha).   Now this, O Bhikkhus, thirdly is the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering (dukkha – nirodha – ariyasacca). It is the complete separation from, and destruction of, this very craving, its forsaking, renunciation, the liberation therefrom, and non attachment there to.   

Now, this, O Bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha-nirodha-gamini-patipada-ariya-sacca).   

It is this Noble Eightfold Path – namely, Right Understanding, Right Thoughts, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration.   
(1).“This is the Noble Truth of Suffering.”  

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.   

“This Noble Truth of Suffering should be perceived (parinneyya).”  

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  

“This Noble truth of suffering has been perceived (parinnata).”  
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.     
(2).“This is the Noble Truth of the cause 
of suffering.”  

Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  

 “This is the Noble Truth of the cause of suffering should be eradicated (pahatabba).”
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  

 “This Noble Truth of the cause of suffering has been eradicated (pahinam).”  
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  

(3).“This is the Noble Truth of cessation of suffering.”  
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.   
 “This Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering should be realized (sacchikatabba).”  
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.   
 “This Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering has been realized (sacchikatam).” 
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  
(4).“This is the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering.”  
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things, unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.   
 “This Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering should be 
developed (bhavetabbam).”
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  
 “This Noble Truth of the Path leading to the cessation of suffering has been 
developed (bhavitam).”
Thus, O Bhikkhus, with respect to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light.  
(concluding His discourse, the 
Buddha declared):  
As long, O Bhikkhus, as the absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Four Noble Truths under their three aspects and twelve modes was not perfectly clear to me, so long I did not acknowledge in this world inclusive of gods, Maras and Brahmas and amongst the hosts of ascetics and priests, gods and men, that I had gained the Incomparable Supreme Enlightenment (anuttaram 
samma-sambodhim).
When, O Bhikkhus, the absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Four Noble Truths under their three aspects and twelve modes, became perfectly clear to me, then only did I acknowledge in this world inclusive of gods, Maras, Brahmas amongst the hosts of ascetics and priests, gods and men, that I had gained the Incomparable 
Supreme Enlightenment.    
And there arose in me the knowledge and insight (nanadassana) – “Unshakable is the deliverance of my mind. This is my last birth, and now there is no existence again.”    
Thus the Exalted One discoursed, and the delighted Bhikkhus applauded the words of the 
Exalted One.  

When this doctrine was being expounded there arose in Ven. Kondanna, the dustless, stainless, “Truth seeing Eye” (Dhammacakkhu), and he saw that “whatever is subject to origination all that is subject to cessation.”  
When the Buddha expounded discourse of the Dhammacakka, the earth-bound deities exclaimed: - “This excellent Dhammacakka which could not be expounded by any ascetic, priest, god Mara or Brahma in this world has been ex-pounded by the Exalted One at the Deer Park, in Isipatana, near Benares.”
Hearing this proclamation the Devas Catummaharajika, Tavatimsa, Yama, Tusita, Nimmanarati, Paranimmitavasavatti, and the Brahmas of Brahma Parisajja, Brahma Purohita, Maha Brahma, Parittabbha, Appamanabha, Abhassara, Parittasubha, Appamanasubha, Subhakinna, Vehapphala, Aviha, Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi, and Akanittha, also raised the same joyous cry.     
Thus at that very moment, at that very instant, this cry ascended as far as the Brahma realm. These ten thousand world systems quaked, tottered and trembled violently.     
A radiant light, surpassing the effulgence of the gods, appeared in the world. Then the Exalted One! “declared, indeed, Kondanna has indeed understood. Kondanna has indeed comprehended The Truth”    
Accordingly Venerable Kondanna, was named Annata Kondanna.   
Dhammacakka Pavattana Suttantum, means the sermon of the Establishment of the Wheel of Truth.  
Thus, the Buddha for full 45 years fulfilled his duties as the Buddha until he reclined at the age of 80, on a Vesak full moon Day 2561 years ago, at Malla’s Sala grove at Kusinara.  
“Sabba Papassa Akaranam Kusalassa Upasampada Sacitta Pariodapanam Etam Buddhana Sasanam!”
Refrain from all evil acts - cultivate meritorious deeds, maintain good governance of ones mind is the doctrine of the Buddha!  
(The article is based on facts gathered from the texts of noted authors Ven. Narada, Ven. K. Dhammananda, Max Muller, Rhys Davids Dr. Ambedkar, Alex Robertson etc.) 

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