Man is a social animal. According to Buddhism, nothing in this world just happens, takes place, comes up Nyamas, and exists on its own. Interaction or mutual cooperation is necessary for anything to happen.
The phenomena which interact for the existence of various things are called cause members. These cause members interact for the origin of anything. This is the law of causation in philosophy. In Buddhism, this state is explained as “Hethu Phala Dharma” or cause and effect.
Although Buddhism attributes the inequality of mankind to Karma as one of the chief causes. It does not assert that everything is due to Karma.
External forces affecting man
In this connection it may be useful to examine the external forces which affect the birth, existence and death of a human being. According to Buddhism there are five orders or processes, Nyamas which operate in the physical or mental realms. They are Uthu Niyama (physical inorganic order);Baja Niyama (physical organic order or order of germs and seeds etc.); Kamma Niyama (Order of action and result); Damma Niyama (order of norm); and lastly Chitta Niyama (order of mind or psychic law)
Physical inorganic order (Uthu niyama)
Physical inorganic order includes natural physical order (Uthu niyama) order of seasons, characteristic seasonal changes and events, causes of wind, rain and heat etc.
Physical organic order (Bija Niyama)
Physical organic order is the order of germs and seeds etc. Rice for instance is produced from the Rice seed; babies are born to parents and calves are born to cattle etc. This is the scientific theory of cells and genes. Because of this there is the physical similarity of the children in the same family.
Order of action and result (Kama Niyama)
Order of action and result (Kama Niyama) is the virtuous or desirable acts producing good results and undesirable acts or deeds producing bad results. Kamma produces inevitable results not as rewards made or punishments imposed by a supernatural being or someone who is believed to be the Creator. The sequence of deeds and effects is as natural and necessary as the way of the sun and the moon.
Order of Norm (Dhamma niyama)
Order of Norm (Dhamma niyama) or situation or way of behaviour that is usual or expected such as the natural phenomena occurring at the advent of a Bodhisattva in his last birth, gravitation or other similar laws of nature, the reason for being good and so forth may be included in this group.
Order of mind or psychic law (Chitta niyama)
Order of mind or psychic law (Chitta niyama) examples of which are the process of consciousness, arising and perishing of consciousness, constituents of consciousness, power of mind, etc. Telepathy, retro-cognition, premonition, clairvoyance and thought reading. These psychic phenomena which are inexplicable to modern science are included in this class.
Every mental or physical phenomenon could be explained by all these five embracing orders or processes which are laws in themselves. In spite of all these Niyamas or orders it is this doctrine of Karma that gives consolation, hope, self alliance and moral courage to a Buddhist. Rebirth takes place due to Karma. Past Karma conditions the present birth and the present Karma is added to the past Karma to condition the future birth.
Good and bad volition (Kusala Akusala Cetana)
Kamma means good and bad volition (Kusala and Akusala Cetana). It is the voluntary action, thought or word other than Buddha and Arahants who do not accumulate fresh Kamma as they have destroyed passions. Kamma is the law of moral causation. Kamma is essentially followed by Vipaka, a result or effect. Kusala Kamma, meritorious or virtuous action brings good results in the same birth or in births to come. Similarly Akusala Kamma bad or demeritorious deeds bring misfortune or affliction.
There are ten kinds of Kusala Kamma such as Dana (Generosity), Seela (Morality), Bhavana (Meditation), Apacayana (Reverence), Veyyavachana (Service), Pattidana (Transfer of Merit), Pattanumodana (Rejoicing in other’s merit), Dhamma savanna (Hearing thee Doctrine), Dhamma Desana (Expounding the Doctrine) and DitthijjuKamma (Strengthening one’s confidence). Dana is the act of giving or offering with generosity. This yields wealth in the present life or in the future lives.
Seelais morality or virtuousness, the observation of which result in birth of noble families and states of happiness.
Bhavanais meditation which gives to births in form and formless realms and tends to gain higher knowledge and emancipation.
Apacayanais reverence, respect and salutation or the act of paying honour and respect to those who worthy of it. “Pujata pujaneyanan” Effects of reverence are many one of which is noble parentage. Veyyevacca is service rendered for others. This includes the support provide to parents, cherishing of wife and children and helping relatives and others. This ends to produce a large retinue.
Pattidana is the act of transferring merit or giving merit by one who has acquired it to other persons. This serves as a cause to get in abundance in future births.
Pattanumodana is rejoicing in other’s merit. This is to share the acts of merit performed by others although it has not been able to play the principal role oneself. This is productive merit wherever one is born.
Dhamma savanna is hearing of Dhamma or listening to Dhamma and learning it for the realization of Nibbana. This Kusala Kamma promotes wisdom.
Dhamma Desana is expounding the doctrine to enlighten others. This promotes the wisdom of the person concerned. Lastly,
Ditthijju Kamma is the act of getting one’s views strengthened. The mind of the doer of merit does not get fluttered. He or she is sorrow less, stainless and secured. This strengthens one’s confidence.
For Buddhists to have false view is to hold wrong views that block the way to Nibbana. This is not to have faith in the Triple Gem, Buddha, His doctrine, and His disciples the Sangha. It is to hold the view that there is no rebirth and that everything happens according to the wish and will of the supernatural person who has created the world.