Surgery is the most common term during this period. When compared with ancient times at present we have a well developed medical field and we use advanced technologies in disease diagnosis, treatment as well as during surgeries. Therefore, unlike in the past, doing a surgery is more convenient at present thanks to advanced technologies. However, people still have a fear of undergoing surgery since it is a complicated process. Many surgeons advice to have certain medical laboratory tests before being admitted to the hospital. This is to identify potential problems that may not be detected and would complicate the surgery if not treated early. These tests also examine a patient’s general state of health and determines if there are infections and also how a specific organ is functioning.
Medical Laboratory Tests
Types of laboratory tests vary according to some parametres such as the basis of findings on the clinical history, examination and the intensity of planned surgery. However, there are few common laboratory tests which need to be done by patients prior to surgery.
Complete Blood Count (FBC)
FBC is used in the preoperative setting to detect anemia, bleeding disorders, inherited and acquired hematological disorders, and the effects of other systemic diseases.
During all operations, where blood loss may be significant, lives can be saved if facilities are available as this allows the immediate issuing of blood without cross-matching in patients with no abnormal antibodies.
Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
FBS is not necessary for minor surgery in healthy patients while patients who are above 40 years, suffering from diabetes, present abnormal urinalysis, or liver and pancreatic disease need to do a FBS before surgery. Major risk factors associating diabetic patients who undergo surgery are cardiovascular disorders, renal insufficiency, joint and connective tissue disorders (limited neck extension, poor wound healing), inadequate granulocyte production and neuropathy. In diabetic patients healing of deep ulcers is impaired because of collagen disorders. Thus a major focus of anesthesiologists should be the preoperative evaluation and treatment of these diseases to ensure optimal preoperative conditions. 10 Hours fasting is needed before this test.
Needs to be done before a major surgery on patients with poor control of blood sugar. Fasting is not needed for this test.
The undertaking of an ECG is needed for males who are over 40 years and females who are over 50 years. People who are suffering from cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, where the Body Mass Index (BMI) is over 35, and a person who has a family history of hyperlipidaemia must do an ECG.
The writer holds a MSc. Degree in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry from the University of Kelaniya and BSc. Food Production and Technology Management degree from the Wayamba University of Sri Lanka.
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