Mon, 29 Nov 2021 Today's Paper

Sri Lanka before it became predominantly Buddhist

9 March 2021 12:07 am - 6     - {{hitsCtrl.values.hits}}

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Before Sri Lanka became predominantly Buddhist following the conversion of the 3rd. Century King Devanampiya Tissa (247 BC-207 BC), the island had an amazing assortment of religious cults, practices and faiths including animism, Jainism, Shaivism, Brahminism and Buddhism. There were many gods, goddesses and deities of local and Indian origin.   


According to the ancient Sri Lankan chronicles such as the Mahavamsa and the Dipavamsa, Buddhism was introduced into the island in the 3rd., Century BC after the Third Buddhist Council by Mahinda Thera and Therini Sangamitta, son and daughter of the great Buddhist Emperor Asoka of India.   


However, the Mahavamsa itself says that Buddhism had its adherents in Sri Lanka even earlier in the 5th. Century BC, during the lifetime of the Buddha. He had visited Sri Lanka thrice. The first visit was made to Mahiyangana in the ninth month after he attained Enlightenment. During this visit, the Buddha subdued the Yakshas thereby setting the stage for the establishment of Buddhism later on.   


His second visit was made to Nagadeepa in North Sri Lanka in the fifth year after his Enlightenment. Here he settled a dispute between the Naga kings Chulodara and Mahodara. In the eighth year after Enlightenment, the Buddha made his third and final visit, this time to Kelaniya with 500 Bhikkhus, at the invitation of a Naga King Maniakkika. 

 
According to the author of the Mahavaṃsa, Prince Vijaya, the ancestor of the Sinhala people, arrived in Sri Lanka on the day the Buddha lay down between the two Sala trees to pass into Nibbaṇa (Nirvana). In the midst of the great assembly of the Gods, the Buddha told the Sakka around him: “Vijaya, son of king Sihabāhu, is coming to Laṅka from the country of Lāta, together with seven hundred followers. In Laṅka, O lord of Gods, will my religion be established, therefore carefully protect him with his followers and Laṅka.”   


When the lord of gods heard the words of the Tathagata, he handed over the guardianship of Laṅka to the god Upulvan, the Mahavamsa says. 

 
However, Buddhism took root in Sri Lanka only in the 3rd. Century BC after the conversion of King Devanampiya Tissa. Prior to that, the religious scene in the island was a hodgepodge of faiths and practice. There was no one religion in the island, as Geethani Amaratunga and Nadeesha Gunawardana of the Departments of Sociology and History at the University of Kelaniya say in their 2019 paper in the International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science. Evidently, no systematically organised national or state religion, existed in the island, they say.   
People worshipped Yakshas, Devas, and snakes. There were Nigaṇṭhas (followers of Jainism, an Indian faith), Paribbajakas (wandering saints), Nagas (worshippers of snakes) Saivas (worshippers of Lord Siva). Ajivakas (those who believed only in destiny) and Brahmins practising Brahminism with its rituals. King Paṇḍukabhaya (437 BC to 367 BC), the builder of the city of Anuradhapura, had built a monastery for Paribbajakas and a house for Ajivikas there.   


Ajivikas


According to www.britannica.com the Ajivikas were an ascetic sect that grew in India about the same time as Buddhism and Jainism. The sect was founded by Gosala Makkhaliputta, a friend of Mhavira, the founder of Jainism. The Ajivikas believed that the affairs of the entire universe were ordered by a cosmic force called Niyati (rule or destiny) which could not be altered by human effort. The Ajivikas practised austerities.   


Yakshas


The Yakshas and Yakshnis were benevolent spirits that could also be mischievous, capricious, sexually rapacious, or even murderous. They were powerful magicians and were the custodians of treasures, cities and lakes. The Yaksha was a term used for believers in such spirits. The Yakshas were among the earliest deities to be depicted in art and sculpture, preceding the depiction of the Bodhisattvas and Brahmanical deities, whose representation they influenced.   


Nagas


The Nagas were snake worshipping people of South Indian origin. H. Parker, a British historian and author of “Ancient Ceylon” considers the Nagas to be an offshoot of the Nayars of Kerala. Cobra worship was later adopted by Buddhism. The Naga King Muchalinda had shielded the Buddha from getting wet in the rain by coiling around him and holding his large hood above his head. The Nagas were one of the four aboriginal people who ruled Nagadeepa or Naga Nadu in North Lanka from the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD. Several kings of Rajarata were from the Naga tribe. Many Buddhist temples in south Sri Lanka have made the divine form of Naga (Natha Deva) into a Bodhisattva.   


Worship of Deities 


God Sumana of Samantakuta is also a pre-Buddhist deity. According to Amaratunga and Gunawardana, the Buddha had gifted strands of his hair to the God Sumana during his first visit to Sri Lanka. When he was lying on the bed for his Nibbaṇa in the midst of the great assembly of Gods he asked for the protection of Prince Vijaya and his followers in Laṅka. When the Lord of the Gods heard the words of the Tathagata he handed over the guardianship of Laṅka to the God Upulvan. 

 
Brahminism


Brahmins or Brahmanas were a force in pre-Buddhist Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa mentions a Brahman named Paṇḍula, whose son, Chandra, was the priest in the court of King Paṇḍukābhaya. The Rasavahini sheds light on a Brahman called Sirinaga who ruled Anurādhapura for a short period.   


Jainismand Saivism


Before the advent of Buddhism, Jainism was well entrenched in Sri Lanka during the reign of 21 Kings. Jainism crossed over to Sri Lanka from South India around the 8th., Century BC and became one of the most important religions of Lanka. According to the Mahavamsa, King Pandukabhaya accommodated them in Anuradhapura. The Jains were called Niganthas in Sri Lanka. The Niganthas eventually lost influence due to actions taken by King Vattagamini (29 BC to 17 BC), but managed to survive up till the 14th.Century AD. There is ample evidence of the existence of Saivism in the island. The Mahavaṃsa sheds light on the SivikaSāla built by king Paṇḍukābhaya.   


Consolidation of Buddhism


As a result of the work of later South Indian Buddhist scholars who were associated with the Mahavihara, mainly Buddhaghosa (4th–5th century AD, Dhammapala and Buddhadatta, Sri Lankan Buddhists adopted Pali as their main scholastic language, which enabled them to go international and spread Theravada Buddhism. From the 5th Century AD to the 11th., Century, Sri Lanka came under periodic attacks by Tamil rulers from India who were staunchly Hindu. They had banished Buddhism from their land and attempted to crush it in Sri Lanka too. But the eventual triumph of the Sri Lankan Buddhist rulers over the invaders ensured Buddhism’s survival and growth to be the religion of 70% of Sri Lankans. However, as Geethani Amaratunga and Nadeesha Gunawardana, say in conclusion, that despite the overwhelming power of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, pre-Buddhist cults and practices have survived, either after incorporation into Sri Lankan Buddhism or independently as part of folk culture. The umbilical connection with India still remains an essential ingredient of Sri Lankan Buddhism.     

 

  Comments - 6

  • Ralaharamy Tuesday, 09 March 2021 07:52 AM

    You achieved something with a very difficult piece of work. "O lord of Gods, carefully protect him with his followers and Laṅka.” Who is this Lord of Gods? The concluding sentence in the last para, summarizes very succinctly.

    S.R.H. Hoole Tuesday, 09 March 2021 10:53 AM

    The Mahavamsa is not accepted as a historical document. It is a reglious, nationalist text.

    Umar Perera Wednesday, 10 March 2021 11:35 AM

    Let's stay and promote a multi-faceted approach to religion in Sri Lanka. After all, we are all on a journey to deeper spirituality and understanding of the divine-human connections.

    Upali Abeysiri Wednesday, 10 March 2021 12:45 PM

    We must learn from history. No religious wars happened in Sri Lanka and people of all faiths lived happily. As Prof. Raj Somadeva has adequately proved wars were about ports and trade for which Sri Lanka was a strategic site. History sadly repeats. Our fellow citizens in the North are led by a few power hungry individuals (living happily in Colombo) and make it impossible for even a Buddhist priest to be cremated. Ancient religious sites are systematically destroyed. Yet again India is fighting for dominance over the ports. Happily Buddhist, Christian and Muslim religious siters thrive in the South with no problems. However, we are sadly divided and try to take advantage over even a pandemic. As a son of Sri Lanka forced to domicile abroad I can only watch and weep.

    Millennium Glass Wednesday, 10 March 2021 08:23 PM

    If “ Jainism crossed over to Sri Lanka from South India around the 8th., Century BC and became one of the most important religions of Lanka”, who were the inhabitants sophisticated enough to practice a religion whose followers go to the extent of even sweeping the ground in front of them as they walk so as not to kill even an ant by unknowingly stepping on it? Certainly not the Yakshas and the Nagas?

    ravindran nadu Wednesday, 10 March 2021 08:50 PM

    this is wrong .


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