India paceman Mohammed Shami led an inspired bowling attack to help restrict Australia to 236 for seven in the first one-day international on Saturday.
Shami returned impressive figures of 2-44 including the wicket of in-form Glenn Maxwell for 40 after Australia elected to bat in Hyderabad at the start of the five-match series.
Spinner Kuldeep Yadav and fast bowler Jasprit Bumrah also took two wickets each.
Wicketkeeper-batsman Alex Carey, who made an unbeaten 36, and Nathan Coulter-Nile, who hit 28, put together 62 runs for the seventh wicket to give the Aussie total some respectability.
Australia suffered an early blow when skipper Aaron Finch was dismissed for nought in his 100th ODI. He was caught behind off Bumrah in the second over.
Usman Khawaja, who top-scored with 50, then put on 87 runs with Marcus Stoinis to steady the innings against a disciplined Indian bowling.
Kedar Jadhav broke the stand with the wicket of Stoinis, who made 37. Yadav soon joined in as the Aussies slipped to 133 for four.
Yadav claimed Khawaja soon after the left-handed opener completed his sixth ODI fifty and then got Peter Handscomb stumped for 19 to put Australia on the back foot.
Maxwell threatened to disrupt the hosts' plans but skipper Virat Kohli's move to bring back pace spearhead Shami in the 36th over paid off.
Shami bowled debutant Ashton Turner and Maxwell -- who had hit an unbeaten 113 to seal his team's 2-0 Twenty20 series sweep over India Wednesday -- in quick succession to dent Australia's chances of putting up a big total.
U. Khawaja c Shankar b Yadav 50
Finch c Dhoni b Bumrah 0
M. Stoinis c Kohli b Jadhav 37
P. Handscomb st Dhoni b Yadav 19
G. Maxwell b Shami 40
Turner b Shami 21
A. Carey not out 36
N. Coulter-Nile c Kohli b Bumrah28
P. Cummins not out 0
Extras (w5) 5
Total (7 wickets, 50 overs) 236
Fall of wickets: 1-0 (Finch), 2-87 (Stoinis), 3-97 (Khawaja), 4-133 (Handscomb), 5-169 (Turner), 6-173 (Maxwell), 7-235 (Coulter-Nile)
Did not bat: A. Zampa, J. Behrendorff
Bowling: Shami 10-2-44-2 (w2), Bumrah 10-0-60-2 (w1), Shankar 3-0-22-0 (w2), Yadav 10-0-46-2, Jadeja 10-0-33-0, Jadhav 7-0-31-1
India: V. Kohli (capt), R. Sharma, S. Dhawan, A. Rayudu, M.S. Dhoni, K. Jadhav, V. Shankar, R. Jadeja, K. Yadav, M. Shami, J. Bumrah Toss: Australia Umpires: Joel Wilson (WIS), Nitin Menon (IND) TV Umpire: Kumar Dharmasena (SRI)